In the year 1885 AD, a workman named Reidl, who worked at a foundry in Schöndorf / Vöcklabruck (Austria), founded by Isidor Braun (1801-1866), broke open a block of brown coal that had been mined at Wolfsegg. He found an unusual metal cube/ cuboid like object embedded in the block.
The Tertiary coal deposit in which it had been embedded is generally dated to about 60 million years ago.
The workman Reidl, and/or his work mates must have found the metal object unusual and significant because they took it to their boss. The son of Isidor Braun, the mines founder, took the artifact to the Heimathaus (Museum) in Vöcklabruck. In 1886, the mining engineer Adolf Gurlt (Professor of Geology at the University of Bonn) suggested that it was meteoritic in origin.
A cast is kept in the Oberosterreichisches Landesmuseum in Linz, where the original object was exhibited from 1950 to 1958. In 1966-67, the object was analysed by at the Vienna Naturhistorisches Museum, using electron-beam microanalysis, which found no traces of nickel, chromium or cobalt in the iron, suggesting that it is not of meteoric origin, while the lack of sulphur shows that it is not a pyrites. Because of its low magnesium content, Dr Gero Kurat (born 1938) of the Museum and Dr Rudolf Grill (1910-1987) of the Geologische Bundesanstalt of Vienna thought it might be cast iron. A further investigation by Hubert Mattlianer, in 1973, concluded that it had been cast using the cire perdue (lost wax) technique.
Some say that the edges were sharp and straight, and there was little doubt that this was a machine made instrument that seemed part of a much larger instrument. It was made of iron, carbon, and a trace of nickel. The cube measured 2 1/2" by 1 4/5", weighed 28 oz., and had an incision that ran around it horizontally.
Here is another description:
"The object was almost a cube, with two of its opposing faces slightly rounded. It measured 67 mm by 47 mm, being this last measure taken between the two rounded off faces. It weighed 785 grams. A very deep incision surrounded it. Its composition age of hard steel with nickel and carbon. It did not contain sulphur, and thus he was not pyrite."
The cube was said to have a specific gravity of 7.75.
Mummies is a term that today is used to describe natural or artificially preserved bodies, though traditionally the word was used specifically to describe the bodies of ancient Egyptians where dehydration of the tissues was used to prevent putrefaction.
The word is derived from the Persian or Arabic word mumia (or mumiya), which means “pitch” or “bitumen”. It originally referred to a black, asphalt-like substance, thought to have medicinal properties and eagerly sought as a cure for many ailments, that oozed from the “Mummy Mountain” in Persia.
There was such a demand for this substance that an alternative source was eventually sought and, because the ancient Egyptian mummies often have a blackened appearance, they were believed to possess similar properties to munia. Hence, during the medieval and later times, they were used as medicinal ingredient. The term mumia, or “mummy” was therefore extended to these bodies and has continued in use up until our present day.
Mummification of bodies was originally a natural process in Egypt and elsewhere, where the dryness of the sand in which the body was buried, the heat or coldness of the climate, or the absence of air in the burial helped to produce unintentional or “natural” mummies. These processes have produced mummies not only in Egypt, but in South America, Mexico, the Alps, Central Asia, the Canary Islands, the Aleutian Islands and Alaska. Another type of natural mummification also occurred in northwestern Europe where bodies have been preserved when buried in peat bogs or fens containing lime.
In some of these areas, the natural process was early on intentionally developed by enhancing the environmental conditions. Sun, fire or other sources of heat were sometimes used to dehydrate the bodies, while at other times, the bodies were cured using smoke. Also, natural material such as grass could be used to surround the body, fill its cavities or seal the burial place so that, by the exclusion of air, decomposition and further deterioration was prevented.
Our Sources and Research on Mummification
What we know about Egyptian mummification comes from a number of sources, including the archaeological evidence provided by the mummies themselves, paleopathological studies of the bodies, painted and carved representations in tomb scenes and elsewhere that depict some stages of the mummification process, and textual references in Egyptian and other classical era accounts. However, there exists no known Egyptian description of the technical processes involved in mummification. No paintings or carvings provide an extant, complete record of mummification, though some wall scenes in the tombs of Thoy and Amenemope (tombs 23 and 41 on the West Bank at Thebes, respectively) and vignettes painted on some coffins and canopic jars show some stages in the mummification process. However, the earliest known accounts of mummification that are relatively complete occur in the writings of two specific An older x-ray of the head of Ramesses IIGreek historians (Herodotus from the fifth century BC and Diodorus Siculus from the first century BC).
Nevertheless, within Egyptian literature, there is scattered references to mummification and the associated religious rituals. In one text, called the “Ritual of Embalming”, is provided a set of instructions to the officials who perform the rites that accompany the mummification process, as well as a collection of prayers and incantations to be invoked after each rite. This ritual is specifically set out in two papyri, probably copied from the same source and both dated to the Roman period. They are the Papyrus Boulaq 3, now in the Cairo Museum, and Papyrus 5158 in the Louvre. There are also references to the embalming ceremonies in the Rhind Papyri and in other literary sources, including inscriptions on stelae. However, it is Herodotus’s account that remains the most complete regarding the mummification process.
In addition to classical texts and references, a surprising amount of modern scientific research has been conducted in regards to mummies. Sometimes,. these have even included multidisciplinary studies of mummified remains which have supplied new information about the process of mummification itself, as well as disease, diet, living and working conditions and even family relationships. For example, the use of scanning electron microscopes has been used to identify insects that attack mummies, histology and electron microscopy have supplied evidence about the success or failure of individual mummification techniques, and thin layer and gas liquid chromatography have isolated and characterized the substances that were applied to the mummy bandages.
Results of a ct or Cat Scan of an unidentified female mummy.There have also been several techniques that have informed us of the diseases in mummies. As early as the 1970s, radiography, which is a nondestructive method, became a major investigative procedure and later the additional use of computerized tomography (CT) became standard in most radiological investigations of mummies. There are also dental studies of mummies that have provided evidence about age, diet, oral health and disease. Paleohistology, which involves the rehydration, fixing and selective staining of sections of mummified tissue, together with paleopathology, which is the study of disease in ancient people, have developed considerably since the techniques were originally pioneered in Cairo earlier in the twentieth century by M. A. Ruffer.
Today, endoscopy has almost completely replaced the need to autopsy a mummy, since this technique allows the researcher to gain firsthand evidence about embalming methods and to obtain tissue samples for further study without destroying the mummy. Histology, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry can then be used to search for evidence of disease in the tissue samples.
Today, we also use DNA, rather than the older studies of blood groups, to help identify individual family relationships and future studies of this type may even help identify the origins and migrations of ancient populations. DNA analysis may also help identify bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic disease.
In the future, current studies on the process of deterioration may also help curators and conservators in preserving their mummy collections.
A mummy preserved by natural mummification in the hot sands of EgyptIn Egypt, a combination of climate and environment, as well as the people’s religious beliefs and practices, led first to unintentional natural mummification and then to true mummification. In Egypt, and particularly ancient Egypt, there was a lack of cultivatable land and so the early Egyptians chose to bury their dead in shallow pit-graves on the edges of the desert, where the heat of the sun and the dryness of the sand created the natural mummification process. Even this natural process produced remarkably well preserved bodies. Often, these early natural mummified bodies retained skin tissue and hair, along with a likeness of the person’s appearance when alive.
Prior to about 3400 BC, all Egyptians were buried in pit graves, whether rich or poor, royal or common. Later however, as prosperity and the advance in building techniques improved, more elaborate tombs for those of high social status were constructed. Yet at the same time, these brick lined underground burial chambers no longer provided the conditions which led to natural mummification in the older pit graves. Now however, mummification had been established in the religious belief system so that the deceased’s ka, or spirit, could return to and recognize the body, reenter it, and thus gain spiritual sustenance from the food offerings. Hence, a method was sought to artificially preserve the bodies of the highest classes. However, preservation of the body was probably also required due to the longer period that it took to actually inter the body, as grave goods and even the tomb itself received final preparations.
What we sometimes called true mummification involves a sophisticated process that was developed from experimentation. The best example of this process is Egyptian mummification, which involved the use of chemical and other agents. The experimentation that led to true mummification probably lasted several hundred years. Such efforts may have begun as early as the 2nd Dynasty. J. E. Quibell, an Egyptologist who worked in some primitive Egyptian necropolises, found a large mass of corroded linen between the bandages and bones of a body interred in a cemetery at Saqqara that perhaps evidences an attempt to use natron or another agent as a preservative by applying it to the surface of the skin.
An unknown mummy from the 1881 cache of mummies found in the Valley of the KingsAnother early technique involved the covering of the body in fine linen and then coating this with plaster to carefully preserve the deceased’s body shape and features, in particular the head. In 1891, W. M. Flinders Petrie discovered a body at Meidum dating to the 5th Dynasty in which there had been some attempt to preserve the body tissue as well as to recreate the body form. Bandages were carefully molded to reproduce the shape of the torso. Arms and legs were separately wrapped and the breasts and genitals were modeled in resin-soaked linen. Nevertheless, decomposition had taken the body beneath the bandages, and only the skeleton remained.
Only as early as the 4th Dynasty do we actually find convincing evidence of successful, true mummification. The mother of Khufu, the king who built the Great Pyramid at Giza, also had a tomb at Giza. Though her body has not been found, in her tomb was discovered preserved viscera which could probably be attributed to this queen. An analysis of these viscera packets proved that they had been treated with natron, the agent that was successfully used in later times to dehydrate the body tissue. Hence, this find demonstrates that the two most important components of mummification, evisceration of the body and dehydration of the tissues, was already in use by royalty. Afterwards, mummification continued to be practiced in Egypt for some three thousand years, lasting until the end of the Christian era.
As Egyptian history progressed, mummification became available to people of the upper and even the middle classes. During the Middle Kingdom, the political and economic growth of the middle classes and the increased importance of religious beliefs and practices among all Egyptian social classes resulted in the spread of mummification to new sections of the population. More mummies have survived from that period than from the Old Kingdom, but it is also evident that less care was taken in their preparations. Mummification was actually most widespread during the Greco-Roman period. It was then that foreign immigrants who settled in Egypt began to adopt Egyptian funerary beliefs and customs. Mummification at that time became an increasingly prosperous commercial venture, and it tended to indicate the decease’s social status rather than any religious conviction. This resulted in a further decline in the quality of the mummification process. At that time, bodies were elaborately bandaged and encased in covers made of cartonnage (a mixture of plaster and papyrus or linen). However, modern radiographic analysis confirms that these bodies were frequently poorly preserved inside their wrappings. Mummification was never generally available to the common classes of people. Yet, since they could not afford the sophisticated funerary structures, they continued to be interred in simple desert graves where their bodies were naturally preserved.
Today, the method of mummification used to preserve a body, as well as the quality of the work, aids Egyptologists in determining the social status of the deceased. Herodotus, the Greek historian, tells us that there were three primary types of mummification available which ancient clients chose according to their ability to pay for these services.
The well preserved mummy of Seti IThe most expensive processes included elaborate funerary rites as well as a lengthy and complicated procedure to preserve the body. This process involved a number of stages, though the two most important steps continued to be the arresting of the decomposition of the body through evisceration and dehydration.
The internal organs, called viscera, were normally removed from the thoracic and abdominal cavities through an abdominal incision in the left flank. In some instances, the viscera were not extracted at all, while in others they were removed through the anus. This tissue was then dehydrated with natron, and either placed in canopic jars or made into four packages and reinserted into the body cavities. Some were wrapped in one large packet that was placed on the legs of the mummy. Interestingly, the heart was considered to be the organ associated with the individual’s intelligence and life force and was therefore retained in place, while the brain was removed and discarded.
After removal of the internal organs, the body cavities were washed out with spiced palm wine and then filled with a mixture of dry natron (a type of salt) gum resin and vegetable matter. Afterwards, the corpse was left to dehydrate, apparently in a bath of natron, for a period of up to seventy days. However, experimentation has proven that forty days is sufficient for the dehydration process, and he seventy days that Herodotus spoke of may have actually represented the period of time between the individual’s death and his burial. natron, believed to be the main ingredient used to pack the body, was found in a dry desert valley called the Wadi Natrun, now famous for its monasteries. It is composed of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate and includes some natural impurities. Originally, there was some discussion in Egyptology circles concerning the use of natron, actual salt (sodium chloride), or lime (calcium carbonate) as the main dehydration agent in Egyptian mummification. There was also a question of whether the natron was used in a solution such as water, or in a solid state. However, Assessment of the Greek texts that describes the process, together with modern experiments on mummification has led us to believe that dry natron provides the most satisfactory results and was probably used exclusively.
After the body was completely dehydrated, the temporary stuffing that was used to fill the body was removed from its cavities and replaced with the permanent stuffing and sometimes also with the viscera packages. Next the abdominal incision was closed, the nostrils were plugged with resin or wax, and the body was anointed with a variety of oils and gum resins, which may have also played some part in preventing or delaying insect attack and in masking the odors of decomposition that would have accompanied the mummification process. However, all of these later stages were essentially cosmetic and had little effect in preserving the tissues.
After the basic mummification process was completed, the embalmers then wrapped the mummy in layers of linen bandages, between which they inserted protected amulets to guard the deceased from evil and danger. A decomposing body will soon begin to swell and loose its recognizable human form. This swelling will effect all of the body, but is particularly apparent in the abdomen, where gasses being produced by bacteria inflate the intestines. Removal of the internal organs of course aids in preventing this process. However, bandaging of the body also prevents or at least restricts such swelling, as well as excluding air from direct contact with the corpse, thus slowing deterioration. Bandaging would also prevent the formation of blisters on the skin, caused by fluid within the body, which appear in the first stages of decomposition.
Next, a liquid or semi-liquid resinous substance was then poured over the mummy and coffin. The mummy and coffin were then returned to the family of the deceased for the funeral and burial.
The two less expensive forms of mummification that Herodotus mentions did not involve the complete evisceration of the body. In a second method, which was also used for animal mummification, oil of cedar was injected into the anus, which was then plugged to prevent the liquid from escaping. The body was afterwards treated with natron. Next, the oil was drained off and the intestines and the stomach, which became liquefied by the natron, came away with the oil. All that remained was actually the skin and the skeleton. The body was returned to the family in this state for burial. However, this was even superior to the cheapest method, where the body was purged so that the intestines came away. Afterwards, the body was treated with natron.
The mummy of elderly woman from the 1898 cache has been at least tentitively identified as Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenhotep IIIOver the long history of ancient Egyptian mummification, there were only two major additions to the basic procedure. From as early as the Middle Kingdom, the brain was removed in some mummies and by the New Kingdom, this procedure of excerebration had become widespread. This process involved the insertion of a metal hook by the embalmer into the cranial cavity through the nostril and ethmoid bone, and the brain was pulverized to fragments so that it could be removed with a spatula type instrument. However, at times, access was gained to the cranial cavity either through the base of the skull or an eye socket. Obviously, it would have been impossible to remove every small fragment of the brain through any of these methods. Before the mummification was complete, the emptied cranial cavity was packed with strips of linen that had been impregnated with resin, though at other times molten resin was poured into the skull.
The second innovation in mummification was probably not introduced until as late as the 21st Dynasty. Then the embalmers sought to develop a technique that originally had been used during the 18th Dynasty mummification of King Amenhotep III. His embalmers had attempted to recreate the plumpness of the king’s appearance by introducing packing under the skin of his mummy though incisions made in his legs, neck and arms. The priests of the 21st Dynasty began to use this subcutaneous packing for anyone who could afford such an expensive technique. Now, the body cavities were packed through a flank incision with sawdust, butter, linen and mud, and the four individually wrapped packages of viscera were also inserted into these cavities, rather than being placed in canopic jars.
Subcutaneous material was also inserted through mall incisions into the skin, the neck and the face was packed through the mouth. Hence, the embalmers attempted to retain the original body contours at least to some extent in order to give the mummy a more lifelike appearance. In fact, artificial eyes were often placed in the eye sockets and the skin was sometimes painted with red ocher (for men) or yellow ocher (for women). False plaits and curls were even woven into the natural hair. However, these very expensive and time consuming processes were not retained beyond the 23rd Dynasty.
The Rituals and Accessories of Mummification
Mummification was attended to in the embalmer’s workshop, known as wbt (place of purification). There may have been some such workshops erected near specific tombs, but because mummification had an “impure” nature and was considered to be associated with certain dangers, most workshops would have been situated outside the actual tomb enclosure. Most workshops, and particularly those that dealt with many bodies, were located somewhat close to the necropolises or temples.
There were actually a number of different rites associated with the mummification process. Some of these were performed in the embalmer’s workshop, though the most important of these, known as the Opening of the Mouth ceremony, was normally carried out at the tomb itself. Yet, there were many other less important rituals that were probably performed throughout the seventy days that Herodotus and others tell us were required for the mummification process. One question Egyptologists have not specifically answered is whether the rituals, which themselves were long and extensive, caused the need for the lengthy embalming process, or instead whether the rituals were extended because of the time required for mummification.
The embalmers and priests used a variety of tools and accessories in the mummification process and its associated rites. In the actual preparation of the body, the embalmers and their assistants employed a blade of obsidian, sometimes called a “stone of Ethiopia”, to make the incision in the side of the mummy. They also used a hooked tool for brain extraction, as noted above, together with various containment vessels which held the plant remains and resin used to anoint the mummy.
Of course, there were amulets placed between the layers of bandages and a cartoonage mask was placed on the face. There were also chest and foot covers placed over the mummy to supply support, and even toe and finger stalls were sometimes utilized to prevent damage to those appendages.
The Embalmers and Others Associated with the Mummification Process
In the mature practice of mummification, there were three distinct groups of practitioners. They included the cutter who made the incision in the flank of the mummy, the scribe who supervised this work and the embalmer himself, who belonged to a special guild or organization and was responsible for leading the mummification ceremonies and for wrapping the mummy in bandages. The latter actually supervised all of the stages of the mummification process and wore a jackal-headed mask to impersonate Anubis, the god of embalming, as he performed the rituals.
The embalmers were actually a special class of priest and were considered to be highly skilled professionals, probably with close ties with the medical doctors. Their office was hereditary. Under their charge might be others, including those who made coffins and wooden funerary figures, as well as other items for the tomb.
On the other hand, the cutters had one of the lowest statuses in society, because of the ritual “impurity” associated with the incision in the corpse and the removing of the viscera. They also obviously faced certain health risks. This class of individual in the mummification process may have even included criminals.
Others included in the mummification procedure and the funeral included priests of Osiris, who performed the rituals, lector priests, who recited the chants and the ritual instructions and the men who washed and cleansed the mummy and the viscera, prepared the natron and resin, and actually wrapped the body with layers of linen bandages. The whole process associated with death became a major industry that employed many workers including mourners and even dancers.
The following text is © by Lloyd Pye. Reprinted with permission.
In the 1930's, in a small rural village 100 miles southwest of Chihuahua, Mexico, at the back of a mine tunnel, two mysterious remains were found: a complete human skeleton and a smaller, malformed skeleton.
In late February of 1999, Lloyd Pye was first shown the Starchild skull by its owners. Nameless then, it was a highly anomalous skull. He initially felt it would prove to be a rare genetic deformity of some kind. This skull’s symmetry was astonishing, even more so than the average human. In fact, all of its bones—most of which had human counterparts—were beautifully shaped. But shaped like what? Solving many questions that this unusual skull presented became his challenge.
Sixty to seventy years ago an American girl of Mexican heritage in her late teens (15 to 18) was taken by her parents to visit relatives living in a small rural village 100 miles southwest of Chihuahua, Mexico. The girl was forbidden to enter any of the area's numerous caves and mine tunnels, but like most teenagers, she went exploring. At the back of a mine tunnel she found a complete human skeleton lying on the ground's surface. Beside it, sticking up out of the ground, was a malformed skeletal hand entwined in one of the human skeleton's upper arms. The girl proceeded to scrape the dirt off a shallow grave to reveal a buried skeleton smaller than the human one and also malformed. She did not specify the type or degree of any of the "malformations."
The girl recovered both skulls and kept them for the remainder of her life. Upon her death they were passed to an American man, who maintained possession for five years before passing them to the American couple who now control them.
The Mystery Skull
Skull suturing and baby teeth in a detached piece of maxilla (upper jaw and palate) indicate death around 5 years of age. The face is missing from the upper bridge of the nose to the foramen magnum (the hole where the spine enters the skull), but the cranium and most of both eye orbits (the external parts of the sockets) are intact.
This skull's degree of humanity is at issue because several aspects of its morphology defy categorizing as genetic defect (inherited), congenital deformation (birth defect), or inflicted deformity (cranial binding).
The Human Skull
A human skull assumed to be Amerindian (an Indian from North or South America) because the rear of its cranium exhibits the flattening that results from being carried in infancy on a cradle board. Tooth wear suggests age at death was around 25 years, plus or minus five. Its smallish size and other reduced points of reference indicate it will likely prove to be female.
Experts suggest the child's high degree of occipital (rear-skull) deformity would most likely have resulted from the cranial binding practiced by primitive cultures around the world. However, such binding never extends below the inion (the bump at the back of the head) because the human neck begins just below that point. Furthermore, squeezing a skull's upper bones out of their natural shape leaves them permanently separated, which results in a life-long "soft spot" at the top of the head.
The child's skull is well-sutured (no soft spot), with none of the distortions normally caused by binding. Furthermore, the extent of rear flattening extends well past the inion, which has become slightly concave. This indicates a strong force other than binding (i.e. pathology or a natural design) must have caused the occipital's extensive deformation.
Though markedly different in shape, the skulls are roughly the same size. However, they exhibit a stunning difference in brain volume. The average volume for a human brain is 1400 cubic centimeters (cc). The volume of the human skull is 1200 cc, typical for a small human. In contrast, the volume of the child's skull is 1600 cc, which is 200 cc beyond the average for adult humans. And had it lived to become an adult, its brain capacity would have grown to 1800 cc or more, well beyond the human average.
In paleoanthropology (the study of ancient animals) a 200 cc increase in brain capacity of a human type creature warrants the naming of an entirely new species. Homo Erectus averages 200 cc more than Homo Habilis; Homo Archaic is 200 cc more than Erectus; Neanderthal is 200 cc more than Archaic. Thus, this child might well represent an unknown species of human-like beings.
An average human skull weighs 2.2 pounds (lbs.). The adult's skull (which is missing its lower jawbone and teeth) weighs 1 lb., 13.4 ounces. Including the child skull's piece of detached maxilla (upper jaw), it weighs only 13.5 ounces. Because it is roughly the size of the adult skull, its bone has to be significantly lighter than typical human bone.
The child's skull has a high degree of symmetry (similarity on both sides). Usually cranial pathologies will cause differences in degree on either side of the head, along with other distortions. Thus, it is highly unlikely a cranium so clearly aberrant would exhibit such startling symmetry throughout.
A CAT scan has shown that none of the sutures between the bones in the child's skull have sealed themselves off from further growth. Nearly all examples of congenital deformity exhibit some degree of premature sealing of cranial sutures. This makes it highly unlikely, if not virtually impossible, for the child's skull to be the result of deformity. It seems to have grown naturally into the shape is had taken.
Normal human eye sockets have a recessed (5 cm) conical shape with optic nerves and optic fissures at the inner rear quadrant of the cone. The child's eye sockets have a shallow (3 cm) scalloped shape with optic nerves and optic fissures moved down and away to the inner bottom. Also, the inner surface of both sockets have incredibly subtle terrain shifts that are impossible to explain in any way other than genetic design.
The shape and width of the eye orbits (the outer edges of the sockets) are equally divergent. The adult's have the vaguely rectangular shape of normal humans, while the child's are shaped like a lopsided oval. The adult's are typically rounded along the top of the rectangle, while the upper part of the child's oval has a clearly definable edge.
The child's ear canals are clearly visible on both sides of its skull. They seem normal in shape and size and angle of entry, but a recent CAT scan revealed that they are larger and have more depth than normal human inner ears. There is no way to know if an external ear was present or what it may have looked like.
The child had small maxillary (cheek) sinuses but no trace of frontal sinus cavities. While extremely rare, this condition is supposedly known among both humans and primates.
The Foramen Magnum
The foramen magnum is the hole at the base of the skull where the spinal column connects with the brain. In normal humans the foramen is positioned slightly rear of center to balance the hollow-filled front face against the brain-filled occipital area. The extensive reconfiguration of the child's skull has somehow caused its foramen magnum to be shifted to a central point that provides much better balance between its rear brain area, and its face and forebrain.
Typical human neck attachments begin at the inion, the bump in the middle of the occipital bone, and sweep out in a semicircle that reaches to just behind the ears and converges at the foramen magnum. The distance from any part of the semicircle to the foramen opening averages 5 to 6 centimeters.
In the child's skull a shallow arc extends about 3 centimeters from the foramen hole, while the inion has somehow become slightly concave. Such a drastic reduction in attachment area means the neck supporting the child's head must have been from 1/2 to 1/3 that of a normal human. Such thin necks are consistently described as hallmarks of certain alien types (Grays), and of Gray-human hybrids.
In the child, the area available for attaching chewing muscles is every bit as reduced as the attachment area for its neck muscles. And though they are called "chewing" muscles, they are actually used for connecting and holding the lower face to the skull.
Based on such a reduced connection area, the amount of mandible (jawbone) these muscles could have secured must have been greatly reduced.
Many abductees and contactees allege that aliens (most often "Grays") are conducting genetic experiments that produce hybrids between themselves and humans. The results of these unions are consistently described as looking far more human than alien, but with stark bulges in the parietal bones; shallow eye sockets; a greatly reduced lower face; a thin neck able to easily support a well-balanced head; and ears seen as markedly lower and smaller (or missing entirely) relative to human ears.
The eyes of Grays are consistently described and depicted as large black teardrop shapes that wrap horizontally across the middle of the face. If those large orbs are indeed their visual mechanisms, it would argue against the child's eyes being related to them. However, in the "Alien Autopsy" film the alien being dissected has the "standard" Gray eyes until the doctor performing the autopsy lifts them off and shows them to actually be dark, flexible coverings like large contact lenses or shades. Underneath those lenses were round, bulging eyes with plenty of white showing around dark irises. Those eyes would fit quite well in the reduced eye sockets of the child.
The Star Being Legends
These are well-known, well-regarded legends with roots spreading throughout Central and South America. They are pervasive and long-standing (two centuries or more), and in general state that on a regular basis "Star Beings" come down from the heavens and impregnate females in remote, isolated villages. The women carry their "starchildren" to term, then raise them to age six or so. At that point the Star Beings return to collect their progeny and remove them to places, and for purposes, not clearly outlined in the legends, though improving a stagnated gene pool is often mentioned as a motivation.
The Non-Traditional Scenario
Many "intuitives" and "sensitives" feel the adult skeleton was a female and the child was hers, a human-alien hybrid created by a union between her and a Star Being. Some feel the mother had learned the Star Beings were returning to take her child from her, which she refused to contemplate. Panic-stricken and filled with dread, she took her child and fled her village, seeking refuge in the hidden mine tunnel. There she killed it and buried it in a shallow grave, leaving one of its hands out of the ground to hold onto. Then she took a fatal dose of poison and lay down beside her child to die.
Inside the nucleus of human cells is found nuclear DNA, which is a combination of both parents. Floating outside the nucleus in each of our cells are tiny bits of stray DNA called "mitochondria." Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) passes solely through females, the first test of the child's mtDNA will provide a genetic snapshot of its mother. If she was human, that snapshot will say "human." However, since the test says nothing about the father, that does not preclude it being a human-alien hybrid. Furthermore, testing might indicate an utterly non-human origin, either by having entirely absent mtDNA or by having a structure markedly different from human mtDNA.
Nothing is likely to be definitive about the origin of the child's skull until its nuclear DNA can be tested. Because the skull is considered technically "ancient" (over 50 years of age), recovering nuclear DNA will be difficult and costly. Luckily, we have what is most required for such a test, which is teeth. The pulp in teeth resists deterioration better than any other part of the body, so that is where we must look for nuclear DNA.
Worldwide there are only a handful of laboratories capable of sequencing ancient nuclear DNA, and all such processes are time-consuming, highly technical, and very expensive. Thus, we cannot contract to have this testing done until funding is available to pay for it, but we will announce all such results as soon as they are available.
- Pathology--genetic (inherited) or congenital (birth defect)--is the standard explanation for any human-like skullb that does not fit the "normal" human mold.In the hands of scientists dedicated to pounding square pegs into the round hole of conventional thinking, pathologycan be made to cover virtually any deviation.
- In truth, a unique combination of extraordinary pathological disorders is a possible explanation for the many aberrations evident in the child's skull. Absent overwhelming evidence to the contrary, mainstream science will insist the skull has resulted from nothing more than multiple pathological defects.
- This opinion will always dominate any others because of the combined academic credentials of those who will profess it. This is reality; we all know it.
Points Supporting Non-Earth Origin
The long-standing Star Being legends of Central and South America provide a plausible mechanism for how a highly abnormal skull (relative to humans) might have been biologically created rather than genetically or congenitally malformed, or physically manipulated by deliberate deformation (binding).
Such immense deformation across the entire occipital (rear) and parietal (upper side) areas of the skull could not result from binding without deformation being visible in the frontal area, which is not evident.
Birth defects across the entire occipital and parietal areas, while not impossible, seem highly unlikely because of the remarkable symmetry exhibited in all areas of the skull, including those effected by the deformations.
The terrain of the bone in the eye sockets contains incredibly subtle indentations and ridges that are perfectly symmetrical in both sockets, which simply have to have been formed by genetic directions rather than by deformations.
The rear deformation extends from the crown to very near the foramen magnum, an area impossible to reach by any binding device due to the thick neck muscles (even in a child) that surround and support the skull-spine connection. Head binding cannot extend below the inion (the bump at the back of the head). Head binding leaves a gaping opening at the top where skull bones fail to fuse.
The bottom line is that even though the skull's highly unusual characteristics demand an open-minded approach to it, mainstream science will reject it outright until forced by DNA evidence to do otherwise. Indeed, it could turn out to be nothing more than a butt-ugly kid with an extraordinary combination of cranial deformities never seen before. But it could also have been the result of a human-alien union, or an outright alien with no connection to humanity at all.
Only time and testing will tell which possibility is correct.
These skulls were photographed by Robert Connolly on his trip around the world during which he was collecting materials about ancient civilizations. The discovery of unusual skulls was thus an unintended "spinoff" of his efforts.
In most respects it appears to be that of a human, except that it has an extraordinarily large cranium and eye sockets. The eye sockets are about 15 percent larger than a modern human's. The age and date of the skull are unknown. Similar skulls appear in remains found in a Mexican cave. Could they all be genetic mutations, some unknown species of creature or something not of this world?
I just came across another fantastic find of an unusual skull, that may just change our view of the world, if it is indeed real!
Look at these pictures of the skull that were finally released in September 2010.
The skull was discovered in July 2007, in Olstykke which is on the Danish Island Sealand. It is just now being “discovered” by scientists.
The Sealand skull was discovered while digging was being performed for replacement of sewer pipes. First thought to be a horse, no other remains that belong to the skull have been found at the site of discovery.
The skull was found with other artifacts pertaining to the Neolithic age, but that doesn’t mean the skull is from the Neolithic age. Carbon 14 dating of the skull put it the age of 1200 and 1280 A.D. And since the skull was found above the pipes being replaced, it highly suggests that the skull hasn’t been buried for long, maybe only 100 years ago. The skull is 1 1/2 times larger than the size of a regular human cranium. The eye sockets are extremely larger than a normal human. Duh! The skull has a very smooth surface which seems to point to it being adapted to a cold climate and the relative eye size is hypothesized to point to a nocturnal creature, something that lived underground, or lived with a very dim sun orbiting its planet.
Suggestions to why it was recently buried include that someone was keeping the skull as a secret, and finally decided to bury the skull to keep its existence unknown.
There is an old tale in Olstykke and nearby villages, that tell of a member of the “Order of Pegasus’ Light” who protected various items, which included an old mysterious cranium and several devices of extraordinary light. These extraordinary light devices were said to be unbreakable metal or ceramic.
Little is known about this “Order” and what other artifacts it may be protecting. Possibly alien artifacts, but that is only speculation at this point. But we do know one thing, the Order was established in 1350, and not much else.
Some known members of the Order are William Shakespeare, H.G. Wells, Thomas Jefferson, Joseph Heller, Rene Descartes, Ambrose Bierce, Giovanni Boccaccio, and others – all writers.
Why an order of writers would keep alien artifacts and devices is a little strange. But since the Order’s name suggests that possibly someone (time traveler or alien visitor?) from either the Pegasus galaxy or Pegasus constellation, came to Earth and gave us knowledge that was kept secret by this order. It does seem to suggest that these writers may have been influenced somehow by this “visitor” and they revealed some of the knowledge they learned through their writings. But no one knows for sure, and never will. But intriguing anyway right?
Anyway, we do have a skull that looks eerily similar to the well known “grey” alien this is widely reported in alien abductions and contacts. Could this be what the skull is – a grey alien? Could it be a skull from a time traveler? It certainly isn’t human by any means. Just like the Starchild skull, which has now been DNA tested and found to have some alien DNA, which is not from our planet.
It is an extraordinary find in my mind. It makes me wonder what else we will find in the future. What more alien looking skulls or skeletons will be found – showing proof that we have been visited before. It will be earth shattering news hopefully. Why this skull was ignored for almost 3 years is beyond me. But finally, scientists are studying this skull and maybe tests will reveal even more astonishing news of its origin. We will have to wait and see I guess. Is this skull real or a sculpture?
There is some that think this is an elaborate sculpture. And I don’t really know one way or another at this point. I do think that the two front canine teeth are fishy – giving that the rest of the teeth are flat like humans, and not pointed like a dogs. I see no reason for the “fang-like” teeth. And the coloring of the skull is suspicious as well. They eye sockets look way too dark compared to the rest of the skull. And the cranial lines seem too perfect, like they were painted on, rather than the skull bones actually fusing that way. But we really don’t know exactly what an alien skull would look like either! But if it’s a sculpture, it’s a pretty good one. And its supposed carbon dating is said to date it to about 900 years. The carbon dating was done at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, yet I can’t find any record of the results. If it was a sculpture, then it would have found to be a fake immediately. So I’m hoping for it to be real.
So what do you think? Human yet deformed in some way? And what about those eyes? What about the teeth – that look so human except for the two canine looking front teeth? Is this proof of alien contact from our past?
The Starchild skull is finally revealing its secrets and maybe this Sealand skull will reveal even more, as long as it is real. Can’t wait!
Lloyd Pye, author of Everything You Know Is Wrong, has taken it upon himself to discover the identity of an unusual skull he has dubbed "The Starchild Skull." The skull, which was found in a mine shaft near Chihuahua, Mexico around 1930, is unusually wide at the back and exhibits larger than normal eye sockets. Although he says the origin of the skull is uncertain, Pye speculates on whether or not it could be of alien origin - or at least belonging to a human-alien hybrid.
While some contend that the skull was merely that of a deformed human child, Pye wanted definitive proof and so, in late 1999, subjected the skull to DNA testing. The results of the test indicated that the skull was from a human being, but Pye points out that the lab could not extract sufficient strands of DNA to make a definitive conclusion, and therefore the question still remains open.
In 1911, miners were digging out layers of guano from a cave located about 22 miles southwest of Lovelock, Nevada when they happened upon the mummified remains of an individual who must have stood 6½ feet tall when alive. A tall Native American, perhaps?
Probably not, since the mummy was still crowned with "distinctly red" hair.
Amazingly, the ancient legends of the local Paiute Indians described a race of red-haired giants – called Si-te-cahs – who were the enemies of many Indian tribes of the region.
"There were giants in the earth in those days."
- Genesis 6:4
And not just in those days:
In 1884, a skeleton 7 feet 6 inches long was found in a massive stone structure likened to a "temple chamber" in a mound in Kanawha County, West Virginia.
In 1925, amateurs excavating an Indian mound at Walkerton, Indiana, uncovered the skeletons of eight ancient humans measuring from eight to almost nine feet in height. All eight had been buried in “substantial copper armor.”
The Lovelock Reviewer-Miner reported in June of 1931 that two large skeletons were found in the Humboldt lake bed near Lovelock, Nevada. The first of these found measured 8 1/2 feet tall and appeared to have been wrapped in a gum-covered fabric similar to "the Egyptian manner."
The San Diego Union (August 1947) reported that F. Bruce Russell, a retired Ohio physician, had discovered a caves underneath Death Valley containing the mummified remains of men 8-9 feet tall, clothed in gray material "taken from an animal unknown today" accompanied by hieroglyphics and depictions of prehistoric animals.
Regardless of the veracity of these stories, if real-world North America can have legends of giant-folk, then the Strange New World of the City, certainly has them for real.
"It is only within the last few years that most people have stopped thinking of the West as a new land. I suppose the idea gained ground because our own especial civilisation happens to be new there; but nowadays explorers are digging beneath the surface and bringing up whole chapters of life that rose and fell among these plains and mountains before recorded history began. . . . We hear rumours of still older things, too . . ."
- H.P. Lovecraft and Zealia Bishop, "The Mound"
Before the arrival of the people considered by the explorers from the Old Countries to be the "natives" of the new continent, there was a more advanced civilization in the New World. Perhaps they were descedants of an even more ancient race from a land called Meropis, now vanished beneath the sea. Or maybe they came from another world. Whatever their origins, these Ancients, as they are now known, built the underground complexes explored by adventurers, and buried their dead in great mounds.
And they were giants. Or at least giantish, with males being perhaps eight feet tall--though their were some populations that were even taller. Their rumored degenerate descendants, the hill-billy giants of the Smaragdines, are taller still--brutish males being just shy of ten feet tall, and their statuesque females somewhat under nine.
But it's the Ancients that concern us here. They're considered extinct, but perhaps there are lost cavern-cities where they can still be found. They were rumored to be masters of great magic, as well. Perhaps some found a way to preserve themselves in some sort of ageless sleep, waiting for the time when they could reclaim their rulership of this land.
The serpent mound of Adams County, Ohio, contained the bones of giants over eight feet tall in the early 1800s. Thousands of years ago, the Ohio Valley was inhabited by a race of giants. In 1846, Joseph Henry, first secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, estimated that in Ohio alone, there were over 10,000 burial mounds. Unfortunately, the early pioneers destroyed most of them.
But at least one burial mound has been reconstructed in Adams County, Ohio. It stretches across the meadow in the form of a serpent perhaps identifying the god of this ancient race of giants. In the nineteenth century, several published accounts of excavations verified that many of the giants were over eight feet and some nine feet tall and each had a double row of teeth.
In 1883, an article appeared in the journal, Scientific American, in which a reporter asked an aged Indian what his people knew of these ancient graveyards. He answered: "Me know nothing about them. They were here before the red man."
In 1872, the Historical Collections of Noble County Ohio (p. 350,351), a mound was uncovered, in which were found "the remains of three skeletons whose size would indicate they measured in life at least eight feet in height. The remarkable feature of these remains was they had double teeth in front as well as in back of mouth and in both upper and lower jaws. Upon exposure to the atmosphere the skeletons crumbled back to mother earth."
“Pedro,” as he has been nicknamed, is one of the most famous enigmatic human remains ever found. He was discovered by gold prospectors in 1932 when they were dynamiting through the canyons of the Pedro Mountains, which rise about 60 miles southwest of Casper, Wyoming. There he was, sitting cross-legged on a ledge with his hands resting serenely in his lap.
He was completely mummified. What’s astonishing, however, is that this middle-aged-looking man appeared to be only 14 inches tall!
According to Native legend, area tribes consider the Pryor Mountains in Montana and the Wind River Range in Wyoming to be the center of the universe for the "Little People."
The Little People, Ninnimbe or "Little Demons", were called Its'te-ya-ha by the Nez Perces. Legends say they killed ancient Shoshone with poison arrows. The Little People knew of a certain type of grass which they would rub themselves with to obtain invisibility. One Crow legend tells of a human baby which fell from a travois and was raised by the Little People. The Crow believe they are protectors, ambushing Crow enemies.